glossary of system design basics
overflow exception. Syn: display, monitor, screen. verifiable. For example, entering an incorrect credit card number is a single-point error, whereas an incorrect logon is a double-point error, because either the user name or password could be the problem. International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunications Standards Section. Capitalize the second word in compound words if it is a noun or proper adjective, an "e-word," or the words have equal weight (for example, E-Commerce, Cross-Reference, Pre-Microsoft Software, Read/Write Access, Run-Time). (2) To produce a record as in (1). (ISO) Documentation that describes how to use a functional unit, and that may include description of the rights and responsibilities of the user, the owner, and the supplier of the unit. More intrusive to users than opt-in, especially for privacy and marketing related features, because there is an assumption of users' wishes. At 96 dpi, the effective resolution is the same as the physical resolution, but in other dpis, the effective resolution must be scaled proportionately. Note: This term is defined differently in various programming languages. hazard severity. digital-to-analog converter. Definitions that are applicable to all parts of the FAR are contained in FAR Part 2, Definitions of Words and Terms, which contains close to 250 definitions. software. duplex transmission. (1) To separate into elemental parts or basic principles so as to determine the nature of the whole. Previews can be displayed statically as part of the option, or upon request with a Preview or Apply button. (Myers) A test coverage criteria requiring enough test cases such that each condition in a decision takes on all possible outcomes at least once, and each point of entry to a program or subroutine is invoked at least once. (NIST) Used as an entity to define a procedure of review, analysis, and testing throughout the software life cycle to discover errors, determine functionality, and ensure the production of quality software. A user account that normally runs with minimal privileges. Contrast with software element. production database. Note: This term is defined differently in various programming languages. Types include critical design review, preliminary design review, system design review. See: spiral model. A small pop-up window that labels the unlabeled control being pointed to, such as unlabeled toolbar controls or command buttons. software engineering environment. Typically accessed from a menu or by clicking a Help link or icon, this content may take a variety of forms, including step-by-step procedures, conceptual text, or more visually-based, guided tutorials. In their normal state, command links have a lightweight appearance similar to hyperlinks, but their behavior is more similar to command buttons. Syn: data contamination. See: analog, digital. Syn: service program. Contrast with error seeding. A file-based repository for information of various kinds about activity on a computer system. See: computer instruction set. Contrast with EDSI, SCSI, ST-506. underflow. functional analysis. Contrast with hardware. See: disk, disk drive. It typically includes system or component structure, algorithms, control logic, data structures, data set [file] use information, input/output formats, interface descriptions, etc. data dictionary. The location where the user is currently directing input. See also: spoke page. (IEEE) A model that accepts the same inputs and produces the same outputs as a given system. (ANSI) To obtain the use of a resource. Bits are usually combined into computer words of various sizes, such as the byte. (IEC) A logical extension of FMEA which analyzes the severity of the consequences of failure. A unit of user activity, often represented by a single UI surface (such as a dialog box), or a sequence of pages (such as a wizard). (1) (ISO) A set of related records treated as a unit; e.g., in stock control, a file could consists of a set of invoices. See: control flow diagram, data flow diagram, data structure diagram, state diagram. National Institute for Standards and Technology. The discipline of HVAC includes a large number of specialized terms and acronyms, many of which are summarized in this glossary… software requirements specification. (NIST) A specification that documents the requirements of a system or system component. (IEEE) A quantitative measure of the degree to which software possesses a given attribute which affects its quality. See: kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte. See also: selected, mixed state. Contrast with LAN, MAN. (IEEE) An element of configuration management, consisting of the evaluation, coordination, approval or disapproval, and implementation of changes to configuration items after formal establishment of their configuration identification. (IEEE) (1) A finite set of well-defined rules for the solution of a problem in a finite number of steps. See also: hub page. Provides 128 possible characters, the first 32 of which are used for printing and transmission control. Often part of a requirements specification. An optional wizard page that outlines prerequisites for running the wizard successfully or explains the purpose of the wizard. state diagram. Relative to software changes, revalidation means validating the change itself, assessing the nature of the change to determine potential ripple effects, and performing the necessary regression testing. However an EEPROM is erased electrically. See: trojan horse, virus, worm. Contrast with mutation analysis. In this case, the text box is considered the owner control. Contrast with simulation. Pertaining to a character set that contains letters, digits, and usually other characters such as punctuation marks. An inherent, possibly accidental, trait, quality, or property of software; e.g., functionality, performance, attributes, design constraints, number of states, lines or branches. For example, formatting options such as themes, fonts, and colors benefit from live previews by showing users the effect with minimal effort. See: testing, functional. printed circuit board. event table. (IEEE) The application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software; i.e., the application of engineering to software. This is a determination of whether or not certain processing conditions use more storage [memory] than estimated. It will facilitate consistency in describing the requirements of the law and regulations applicable to such products and systems. (QA) A function or an area in a manufacturing process or procedure, the failure of which, or loss of control over, may have an adverse affect on the quality of the finished product and may result in a unacceptable health risk. software configuration item. (IEEE) An event that causes suspension of normal program operation. (IEEE) (1) A sequence of characters. (IEEE) A process or meeting during which a system, hardware, or software design is presented to project personnel, managers, users, customers, or other interested parties for comment or approval. equivalence class partitioning. Contrast with modulation. (IEEE) (1) The arrangement of a computer system or component as defined by the number, nature, and interconnections of its constituent parts. software diversity. On the Windows desktop, flyouts are displayed by clicking on a gadget, and dismissed by clicking anywhere outside the flyout. (ISO) The unwanted change of the value of an output signal of a device over a period of time when the values of all input signals to the device are kept constant. (IEEE) Pertaining to a interactive system or mode of operation in which the interaction between the user and the system resembles a human dialog. Tests may include; unit level tests, interface tests, software configuration item testing, system level testing, stress testing, and regression testing. The ability for users to select optional features explicitly. (IEEE) Analysis to ensure that all portions of the program follow approved programming guidelines. (2) A value which lies at, or just inside or just outside a specified range of valid input and output values. Security also pertains to personnel, data, communications, and the physical protection of computer installations. safety critical computer software components. (IEEE) An exception that occurs when a program attempts to write into a protected area in storage. This is accomplished through I/0 ports and devices. For example, Programs and Ease of Access are two control panel items. See: computer, computer system. Appears beneath the owned window in Z order. (ISO) A process of defining the hardware and software architecture, components, modules, interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements. Syn: peripheral equipment. See: testing, acceptance; testing, system. (3) (ANSI) The methodical investigation of a problem, and the separation of the problem into smaller related units for further detailed study. (ISO) The time interval between the instant at which a CPU's instruction control unit initiates a call for data and the instant at which the actual transfer of the data starts. megabyte. IEEE Standards Collection, Software Engineering, 1994 Edition, published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Inc. National Bureau of Standards [NBS] Special Publication 500-75 Validation, Verification, and Testing of Computer Software, 1981. Integration testing is then conducted on the program as a whole. Syn: black-box testing, input/output driven testing. Permanent memory that holds the elementary circuit operations a computer must perform for each instruction in its instruction set. See: user. A simple mini-application hosted on the user's desktop. Those related terms are located sequentially to assist the user in finding all defined terms in these domains, e.g., functional testing is defined under testing, functional. (IEEE) Analysis which identifies all software requirements that have safety implications, and assigns a criticality level to each safety-critical requirement based upon the estimated risk. valid. (ANSI) A bus carrying the signals that regulate system operations. May be labeled or grouped. See: end user. modem access. information hiding. Implies the excessive use of GOTO instructions. hazard probability. See: retrospective trace, subroutine trace, symbolic trace, variable trace. See also: elevated administrator, standard user. (IEEE) A software V&V task to determine the extent of V&V analysis and testing that must be repeated when changes are made to any previously examined software products. Reduced instruction set does not necessarily mean fewer instructions, but rather a return to simple instructions requiring only one or a very few instruction cycles to execute, and therefore are more effectively utilized with innovative architectural and compiler changes. Contrast with batch processing. constant. Varying the characteristics of a wave in accordance with another wave or signal, usually to make user equipment signals compatible with communication facilities. batch. read only memory. See: dynamic analysis, static analysis, software engineering. stub. (IEEE) An audit conducted to verify that a configuration item, as built, conforms to the technical documentation that defines it. (QA) An individual step in an critical control point of the manufacturing process. See also: floating window. object oriented design. See: input-process-output chart. The terms are defined, as much as possible, using available standards. The modules are created in class hierarchies so that the code or methods of a class can be passed to other modules. A progressive disclosure chevron pattern where a heading can be expanded or collapsed to reveal or hide a group of items. simulation. For example, high definition television uses a 16:9 aspect ratio. configuration. data sink. A tool that instruments a program to obtain execution frequencies of statements is a tool with this feature. asynchronous transmission. (1) (ISO) An arrangement of nodes and interconnecting branches. See: memory. (ANSI) The phase in the system life cycle that includes assembly and testing of the hardware and software of a computerized system. Database organization method that links files together as required. main program. sensor. microcode. testing, structural. Similarly, in screen layout, the most important content must be visible without scrolling. polling. See: bomb, virus, worm. Contrast with batch. (IEC) The identification and analysis of conditions and factors which cause or contribute to the occurrence of a defined undesirable event, usually one which significantly affects system performance, economy, safety or other required characteristics. translation. Capitalize only the first word of each column heading. For example, most dialog boxes are owned windows. The structural or grammatical rules that define how symbols in a language are to be combined to form words, phrases, expressions, and other allowable constructs. A sequence of bits or characters that is stored, addressed, transmitted, and operated on as a unit within a given computer. A platform includes, but is not limited to the operating system or executive software, communication software, microprocessor, network, input/output hardware, any generic software libraries, database management, user interface software, and the like. For example, the compilation, loading, and execution of a computer program. Contrast with multi-tasking. large scale integration. Why Ensure a basic and common understanding of the necessary theory to design water supply system. To display a window at its largest size. field. bootstrap. The term is a contraction of modulator-demodulator. See: block diagram, box diagram, flowchart, graph, input-process-output chart, structure chart. Contrast with emulation. See also: list box, drop-down list. change control. Contrast with assembly language. noncritical code analysis. (2) (IEEE) Pertaining to the simultaneous processing of individual parts of a whole, such as the bits of a character or the characters of a word, using separate facilities for the various parts.
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